The EMScan Database Module

The EMScan Database Module allows the system operator to pre-define, name, store, and maintain a variety of databases. Following are just a few actual examples of databases created by and currently in use at EMScan sites:

MAIN A database containing all records for all units for all regions in the state, county, region or zone.
WSTPSA A database containing only those records from the West region, in which EMS services provided public service assistance that caused "downtime" greater than 30 minutes.
TRAUMA A database that contains only those records that meet specific trauma criteria.
PLAYKIDS A database that contains only those patients meeting a certain age criteria that were injured on a playground.
NOBELTS A subset of the "TRAUMA" database, this one contains only those records of MVC-related injuries in which the patients were not wearing seatbelts, and sustained injuries that resulted in transport to a receiving facility.
TR2NT A subset of both the "TRAUMA" database and the "NOBELTS" database, these records are for patients that received a traumatic injury in an MVC, were not wearing seatbelts; and although meeting pre-selected trauma criteria, were transported to a non-trauma facility. Records that indicated the calls were "diverted" have been excluded from the database.
HEARTMAN A database containing only male heart attack victims over the age of 30, where response time was > 10 minutes.
JENKINS A database containing only those runs where an EMT by the name of "Jenkins" was in attendance.
WORKHURT A database containing only those records where patients suffered a work-related injury.
NOTVALID A database that contains all EMT’s and/or vehicles that are operating with invalid license numbers.

The above listed databases are easily updated when additional patient care reports are scanned by the system. In addition, all of the databases can easily be queried, merged, exported to an ASCII file, or simply reported upon by means of the EMScan Report Module.

EMScan databases use a unique structure that facilitates rapid querying and reporting on complex criteria. Up to 100,000 records per minute can be processed on multi-variant queries. This allows for effective use of microcomputer resources on large databases.

The EMScan Query Module is perhaps the most powerful component of the EMScan software. This module displays the various fields contained on the run report form and allows the user to easily designate the criteria (a query) by which records will be selected from the database.

Once designed, queries can be saved for later and repeated use. Databases created through the query process can be saved to disk as separate databases. Additional queries can then be applied to allow for a "branched" query process that is efficient and accurate.

All reports found in the EMScan Report Module can be generated from any of the smaller databases created through the Query Module.

Querying processes can also be automated through the EMScan Scripts Module. This module automates routine procedures through a single keystroke (e.g., updating all queries, generating large ranges of reports, etc.)

Sample Queries:

Query 1
Create a database that contains all cardiac arrest calls that required more than one attempt at IV access. Call this database "IVARREST"
MAIN Database

Query 2
Create a database that contains all diabetic patients with an initial blood sugar of less than 40 that were not transported. Call this database "LOWSUGAR".
MAIN Database

Query 3
Create a database that contains all Motor Vehicle Crash calls in which the patient was operating a motorcycle and not wearing a helmet. Call this database "NOHELMET."
MAIN Database

The EMScan Report Module allows the user to easily generate a variety of reports on any or all of the databases established within EMScan. The reports can be generated on any date range, unit range, and/or by individual personnel. In addition, the reports may be requested in summary or full lengths, and can be sent to the screen, a diskette, a file, or a printer.

Unit Utilization Report - The Unit Utilization Report offers information on all of an EMS
system's units, a group of specific units, an individual unit, or by personnel. The information available includes, but is not limited to:

  • Elapsed Time Percentiles
  • Calls by Response Outcome
  • Unit Mileage
  • Median Elapsed Times
  • Call Frequencies with Median Times per Call
  • Calls by Hour by Day of Week
  • Response and Transport Modes

Incident Location/Type Report - This report offers information on the location and type of calls units are being dispatched to, as well as what types of calls are found. In addition, this report offers frequencies and percentages of both incident types and locations. Besides offering useful information for EMS system management, this report has also been extremely useful to state and local injury prevention programs, public education programs, and injury prevention research programs.

Trauma Report - This report gives specific information on trauma calls in a system, including detailed frequencies and percentages for injury sites and types, Glasgow Coma Scale, and Revised Trauma Scores.

Medical Report - Similar to the Trauma Report, the Medical Report gives very specific breakdowns of illnesses and emergencies. Additional information can be reported on primary and secondary illnesses and emergencies for any or all non-traumatic calls. EKG frequencies and percentages are also detailed.

Treatment Report - This report can be generated by individual personnel or by unit and provides frequencies and percentages for the following:

  • BLS Treatment
  • ALS Treatment
  • ALS Treatment Attempts and Success Rates
  • IV Solutions and Rates
  • Medication Administration

Admission Report - This report lists the locations, by name, to which patients were transported. It also includes the frequencies and percentages of transports by facility.

EMT Skills Report - This report details, by EMS professional, the various skills performed for the requested data range, as well as success ratios for procedures. The report typically lists the individual's license number, level, name, procedures performed, and number of attempts/ successes. It provides for an excellent training tool as well as continuing education reference.

Custom Report - The Custom Report allows the user to "create" a report from all the fields available. The user simply specifies what elements are to be included, the criteria for the elements selected, and the format for the report. This ad hoc reporting capability offers easy access to all of the information contained in the system.

The rationale for evaluation of an EMS system is to determine levels of performance within that system. The information obtained may then serve as a baseline for further study and as a means to measure future performance and the effectiveness of any Quality Improvement (QI) actions.

The EMScan Quality Impovement Module enables administrators, managers, and medical directors to more effectively monitor the quality of patient care being rendered by emergency medical personnel. The module provides for the establishment of specific, user definable software screens (called filters) that compare the treatment provided to each patient against established protocol for a particular agency or area. Compliance or non-compliance with protocol is detailed in a series of reports that enable review of individual performance. This information can then be used to detect and address positive or negative trends in the delivery of specific components of patient care, and ultimately to improve the overall quality of care being provided.

EMS agencies must develop standards of performance that may be used as a benchmark for further QI assessment. The following are examples of filters commonly implemented with the EMScan software. These filters can be easily modified, or additional filters can be designed utilizing the EMScan Filters Module.

• Response Urgent to / Emergent from
• Response Routine to / Emergent from
• Adult 9-99 yrs - Systolic <90 or >180
• Adult 9-99 yrs - Diastolic > 100
• Adult 9-99 yrs - Pulse <60 or >140
• Adult 9-99 yrs - Resp. <12 or >24
• Child 7-8 yrs - Systolic <82 or >106
• Child 7-8 yrs - Pulse <70 or >115
• Child 7-8 yrs - Resp <20 or >28
• Child 5-6 yrs - Systolic <78 or >102
• Child 5-6 yrs - Pulse <75 or >120
• Child 5-6 yrs - Resp <22 or >28
• Child 3-4 yrs - Systolic <74 or >98
• Child 3-4 yrs - Pulse <80 or >130
• Child 3-4 yrs - Resp. <22 or >32
• Child 1-2 yrs - Systolic <70 or >94
• Child 1-2 yrs - Pulse <80 or >160
• Child 6-11 mths - Resp <30 or >48
• Child 0-5 mths - Resp <30 or >50
• Glasgow <13
• Communications Failure
• Standing Orders & Meds Administered
• Intraosseous Success or Attempt Cricothyrotomy Success or Attempt
• Chest Decompression Success or Attempt
• External Jugular Success or Attempt
• IV Three or more Attempts
• ET 3 or more Attempts or Unsuccessful
• NT 3 or more Attempts or Unsuccessful
• Scene Time >20 min & Medical Call
• Scene Time >10 min & Trauma Call
• Trauma Call-Non Transport to Trauma Facility
• Care Transferred
• Patient Refused Service
• No Treatment/No Transport
• Treatment/No Transport
• Police Custody
• Dead on Scene
• Number of Patients >5
• Significant Contact with Blood or Body Fluids
• MCI, Patient Abuse and/or Hazmat
• Cardiac Arrest
• Respiratory Arrest

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